From a clinical point of view, the application of additional tactile cues may have therapeutic benefits in relation to fall prevention, or to improve specific types of chronic pain.

 The American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA) today announced the results of its Today's Podiatrist survey, which measures the public's attitudes toward foot health. The study, which surveyed 1,000 US adults ages 18 and older, found the majority of Americans say they have experienced foot pain (77 percent).

This outcome provides support for future studies on the efficacy of the textured insole in minimizing asymmetry of gait and posture in individuals in need.

We therefore suggest that it is necessary to differentiate between (i) cues from plantar cutaneous receptors involved in exteroceptive functions, like the evaluation of the support structure or of relative foot-to-surface motion, and (ii) cues from deep receptors which subserve proprioceptive functions like the control of center of pressure shifts within the limits of the foot support base.

It is suggested that sensory feedback from the foot is important in the maintenance of normal gait patterns.

We conclude that foot sole input contributes to the coding and the spatial representation of body posture.

In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for five weeks was sufficient to improve the proprioceptive ability and performance ability of ballet dancers.

The findings revealed that the staggered stance represents a "hybrid" blend of the properties of the side-by-side and tandem foot positions. Collectively, foot position and weight distribution interact to determine the stability and flexibility of inter-leg coordination dynamics in postural control.

Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important aspect of this. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for postural and balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception for generalization to applied situations, the method used should have ecological validity and allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated in the central nervous system, in order to reflect the signal-noise nature of central processing in sports activities. In addition, ankle proprioceptive interventions, passive or active, should therefore be predicated on discriminating signal from noise in central processing, to attain optimal outcomes.

These findings brings new clinical perspectives in the development of intervention strategies in the management of patients with FM and balance disorders, completing validated therapeutic strategies.